Russian president Putin in Yekaterinburg Mikhail Svetlov/Getty Images

Warum sind „illiberale Demokraten“ populär?

BRÜSSEL – Der Aufstieg der „illiberalen Demokratien“ in Europa ist einer der unheilvollsten Trends unserer Zeit. Diese Regime sind in der Regel um einen Führer herum angeordnet, der die Macht auf sich konzentriert, indem er sich über die institutionellen Mechanismen der Gewaltenteilung hinwegsetzt und sie in einigen Fällen beseitigt. Wladimir Putin in Russland, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in der Türkei und Viktor Orbán in Ungarn repräsentieren drei der offenkundigsten Manifestationen dieses Phänomens. Doch das wirklich Bemerkenswerte – und Gefährliche – ist die Art und Weise, in der diese Regime es geschafft haben, sich die Unterstützung der Bevölkerung zu erhalten.

Die Kontrolle über die traditionellen Medien wie Fernsehen, Radio und Presse ist natürlich ein Grund, warum diese Regime bei Wahlen ihre Mehrheiten verteidigen. Doch kann die Manipulation oder selbst die direkte Kontrolle der Medien die von Meinungsumfragen bestätigte anhaltende Popularität illiberaler Führer nicht erklären.

Der zentrale Grund für den politischen Erfolg dieser Führer ist, dass diese Regime – obwohl sie sich als anti-westlich positionieren – bisher dem sogenannten Washingtoner Konsens gefolgt sind, der eine umsichtige makroökonomische Politik und offene Märkte vorschreibt.

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