Paul Lachine

Privatizace rozvojové pomoci

LONDÝN – Na oficiální rozvojové pomoci (ORP) se za posledních 50 let ledacos změnilo. Od svého vzniku během studené války, kdy členské státy Výboru OECD pro rozvojovou pomoc uvolňovaly zhruba 60 miliard dolarů ročně (a výdaje Sovětského svazu se této sumě nepochybně vyrovnaly), už se recipientským (pomoc přijímajícím) zemím říkalo „zaostalé“, „rozvojové“, „jižní“ a naposledy „rozvíjející se“.

V posledních letech se objevují pochybnosti, co vlastně recipientskou zemi definuje. Velká Británie debatuje o tom, zda ukončit poskytování pomoci Indii, třetímu největšímu příjemci kapitálových toků a domovině Tata Group, největšího zaměstnavatele v britském výrobním průmyslu. Země eurozóny zase na Čínu jako dlouholetého příjemce pomoci, který drží vládní dluh USA v hodnotě 2,5 bilionu dolarů, pohlížejí s nadějí, že jim pomůže překonat jejich vlastní dluhovou krizi.

Navíc se změnily definiční znaky rozvoje a ohnisko politik se posunulo k dobré správě, transparentnosti, zodpovědnosti a lidským právům. Rozsáhlé stavební projekty proto vystřídaly iniciativy zaměřené na zlepšování zdravotnictví, školství a rovnosti pohlaví.

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