Paul Lachine

发展援助私人化

伦敦—过去五十年来,官方发展援助(ODA)改变了很多。ODA起源于冷战,其时经合组织发展援助委员会每年拿出约600亿美元资金(苏联毫无疑问可以与之匹敌),接受国被称为“后进国家”、“发展中国家”、“南方国家”,最近则被称为“新兴国家”。

事实上,近几年来,如何定义受助国变得越来越值得商榷。英国在讨论是否停止对印度的援助,后者是当今第三大资本流入国,也是英国最大制造业雇主塔塔集团(Tata Group)的母国。类似地,欧元区国家眼巴巴地望着中国帮助它们克服债务危机,而中国是老牌受助国,如今持有2.5万亿美元美国国债。

此外,发展本身也被重新定义,政策焦点转移到良好治理、透明度、可问责性和人权上。结果,旨在改善卫生、教育和性别平等的计划取代了大规模建设项目。

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