impoverished child Thomas Trutschel | Getty Images

الفقر بعيدا عن الأرقام

أسونسيون ــ تُرى ما هو الفقر؟ على مدار عقود من  الزمن كان تعريفنا للفقر يعتمد على رقم، والذي يحدده البنك الدولي حاليا بدخل شخصي يقل عن 1.90 دولارا يوميا. بيد أن هذا الرقم الواحد يعجز عن تصوير مدى تعقيد الفقر. ويشكل قياس عناصر أخرى غير الدخل ضرورة أساسية لفهم احتياجات الفقراء وتقديم المساعدة لهم.

عندما يعقد البنك الدولي اجتماعات الربيع في واشنطن العاصمة في الأسبوع المقبل، سوف تسنح لنا الفرصة لوضع المعايير التي تشمل الأبعاد الاجتماعية والبيئية للفقر. وقد أقر البنك بضرورة النظر في ما هو أكثر من الدخل، وأنشأ مؤخرا المفوضية المعنية بالفقر العالمي للتوصية بمقاييس إضافية.

وبرغم أن العديد من المجموعات العامة والخاصة تقوم بالفعل بجمع البيانات حول مجموعة من القضايا التي تؤثر على المجتمعات الفقيرة، مثل التغذية أو صحة الأمهات أو القدرة على الحصول على التعليم، فإن مثل هذه المعلومات تظل غير مستغلة إلى حد كبير ونادرا ما تتبادلها المؤسسات. ولكن هناك بعض منارات الأمل، بما في ذلك مؤشر التقدم الاجتماعي، والذي يوفر إطارا لتتبع الأعراض المتعددة للفقر بين البلدان ويكمل المقاييس التقليدية التي تقوم على الدخل.

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