Où en est la renaissance annoncée de l’énergie nucléaire ?

ZÜRICH –Nous avons entendu, ces dernières années, des appels en faveur d’une relance de l’énergie nucléaire civile. Pourtant, cette renaissance attendue ne semble pas se concrétiser.

Sur les plus de 200 pays que compte notre planète, seuls 30 font appel à l’énergie nucléaire. En juillet 2010, 439 centrales nucléaires, avec une puissance installée nette de 373,038 GW (gigawatts), étaient raccordées aux différents réseaux électriques nationaux, soit 1,2 GW de plus qu’au début  2006.

Près de 16 pour cent de la demande totale en énergie (jusqu’à 25 pour cent dans les pays hautement industrialisés) est aujourd’hui fournie sous forme d’énergie électrique. La part de la fission nucléaire dans ce pourcentage est passée de 18 pour cent environ il y a dix ans à 14 pour cent en 2008. A l’échelle mondiale, l’énergie nucléaire ne représente donc qu’une petite partie de l’approvisionnement énergétique global, et cette part, contrairement aux idées reçues, ne va pas croissant.

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