paris climate agreement Chesnot/Getty Images

La politique énergétique de Trump, une menace pour la planète

MADRID – Cette année, le Jour de la Terre, le 22 avril 2017, est le premier anniversaire de la signature de l'accord de Paris sur le climat signé par 195 pays. Ce traité multilatéral entré en vigueur en novembre constitue l'avancée la plus importante réalisée à ce jour par la communauté internationale dans sa lutte contre le réchauffement climatique. Mais ce premier anniversaire est terni par la politique énergétique de Donald Trump.

En 2016, l'année la plus chaude jamais enregistrée, la température moyenne de la planète était supérieure de 0,9° C à sa température moyenne au cours du 20° siècle. Le principal objectif de l'accord de Paris est d'éviter qu'à la fin du siècle la température moyenne de la planète augmente de plus de 2° C par rapport à son niveau de l'époque préindustrielle. De grands pays encore en développement comme la Chine et l'Inde (respectivement le premier et le troisième plus grand producteur de gaz à effet de serre) se sont engagés à respecter cet objectif.

L'accord de Paris établit un cadre véritablement révolutionnaire pour ce type d'engagement : la contribution déterminée au niveau national par chaque pays (NDC, Nationally Determined Contribution). Dans ce cadre, chaque pays signataire précise sa contribution volontaire en faveur de l'objectif commun de limitation des causes anthropogéniques du changement climatique.

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