Jon Krause

La ONU, al rescate de la lucha contra el cambio climático

PARÍS – La Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas es la única instancia del mundo donde todos los países votan y gana el dictamen de la mayoría. No tiene requisito de unanimidad ni existe allí el veto, lo cual bien puede ser el motivo de que no se la haya convocado para tratar el cambio climático. Sin embargo, es el único lugar donde es posible superar la obstrucción de los países grandes (por ejemplo, China y Estados Unidos en la cumbre global sobre el clima, realizada en diciembre en Copenhague).

Por supuesto, en el pasado la ONU ha desempeñado un papel importante en torno al cambio climático. Casi cada año desde la firma de la Convención Marco de la ONU sobre el Cambio Climático, en Rio de Janeiro en 1992, se ha reunido una “Conferencia de Partes”. A menudo, estas reuniones son de carácter técnico y el debate se lleva a cabo entre embajadores, pero a veces el trabajo preparatorio exige decisiones que se toman a nivel de ministerios, o incluso de jefes de estado o gobierno. Fue el caso de Kyoto en 1997, y nuevamente en Copenhague en la COP15.

Vale la pena recordar que muchas delegaciones llegaron a Kyoto con disposición a aceptar la idea de un impuesto a las emisiones de gases de invernadero, o al menos de dióxido de carbono, el gas de invernadero más común. La delegación estadounidense, enviada por un gobierno que buscaba reducir la intervención del estado en la economía, manifestó su vehemente oposición a la idea.

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