死于阳刚

伦敦—新闻媒体长年累月地报道着可能伤害我们健康的日常活动。但也许目前仍被忽视的影响最大的全球健康风险来自性别规范。

尽管压倒性的证据表明基于性别的成见和期望会给健康带来负面影响,但与性别有关的健康问题仍被大量忽视或误解,国际健康组织通常把针对特定性别的努力限制在女性——甚至更狭隘地,限制在母亲。但是,根据世界卫生组织的数据,除了三个国家之外,全世界女性预期寿命都高于男性,其中日本高出7年,撒哈拉以南非洲的穷国则高出1年。

长期以来,人们认为女性预期寿命更长与“生物倾向”(biological predisposition)有关,比如女性铁水平较低从而能够提供保护,或者不存在男性Y染色体的“额外”基因等。但缩短男性生命的最显著的因素来自更无聊但政治上更敏感的领域:男女“合适”行为的不同,这类行为由社会规定,然后由市场强化。

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