Flood water in Sylhet City Md. Akhlas Uddin/ZumaPress

Consolider un avenir durable

LONDRES – À l’époque où Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels écrivent « Tout ce qui était solide, bien établi, se volatilise, » ils utilisent cette métaphore pour décrire les transformations perturbatrices engendrées par la révolution industrielle sur les normes sociales admises. Or, cette expression vient littéralement illustrer la situation actuelle : les émissions de dioxyde de carbone et autres polluants industriels libérés dans l’atmosphère modifient aujourd’hui l’état de notre planète – avec d’importantes conséquences pour l’environnement, la santé, les mouvements de populations, ou encore la justice sociale. Le monde se situe à une croisée des chemins, et une part majeure des progrès accomplis dans ces domaines pourrait bien se volatiliser.

En 2007, Nelson Mandela a créé le groupe des Aînés afin de répondre précisément à ces risques, chargeant ce groupe indépendant, composé d’anciens dirigeants, d’ « exprimer la vérité jusqu’aux plus hautes sphères du pouvoir ». C’est ce que nous ferons ce mois-ci lors du lancement des nouveaux Objectifs de développement durable, devant l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies.

Les ODD succéderont aux Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement, qui ont conduit les efforts internationaux de développement entre 2000 et 2015. Ces OMD ont aidé plusieurs millions de personnes à s’extraire de l’illettrisme, de la maladie, de la faim, et placé le développement au cœur de l’agenda politique mondial. Leur impact global s’est toutefois bien souvent révélé inadéquat, notamment au sein d’États fragiles et en proie aux conflits – ces objectifs ayant par ailleurs échoué à inscrire en leur sein la question de la durabilité.

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