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即将到来的科技政策争论

斯坦福—2016年美国总统竞选期间,民主党全国委员会的服务器被黑客侵入,许多有损其形象的电子邮件遭到泄露。德克萨斯州达拉斯能源警报响彻天空几小时之久。它们之间有什么共同之处?韩国核威胁与欧洲和美国的恐怖袭击之间也有着同样的共同点:它们都说明了大有裨益的技术的弊端——这些风险日益要求我们出台强大的政策应对。

科技争议的日益激烈的例子包括所谓的网络中立性争论和苹果公司与联邦调查局之间关于解锁嫌疑恐怖分子的iPhone的纠纷。这不足为奇:随着科技带来的后果越来越多——影响到安全(核武器和网络战)和工作岗位(先进软件和机器人对劳动力市场干扰)等——其影响有好,有坏,也有可能有丑。

先看好影响。科技消灭了天花等疾病,也几乎根除了脊髓灰质炎等疾病;科技让我们能够进行空间探索;科技加快了交通运输;科技打开了通往金融、娱乐和其他诸多方面的新的机会之门。光是蜂窝电话技术,就让世界绝大多数人口摆脱了通讯限制。

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