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让我们来谈谈地球工程

坎布里奇——上周,在肯尼亚内罗毕召开的联合国环境大会上,就地球工程技术展开的谈判陷入了僵局,会上由瑞士支持的就该问题委托联合国专家小组的提议遭遇撤回,理由是有关语言方面的分歧。这是一种耻辱,因为世界需要公开探讨有关减少气候风险的创新方式。

除此之外,僵局来源于环保界内部对太阳地球工程越来越浓厚的科学兴趣所引发的争议——有可能故意将少量太阳光反射回太空,以协助应对气候变化。某些环境和民间社会团体坚定地认为太阳地球工程将造成损害或遭到滥用,因此反对开展进一步的研究、政策分析和有关该问题的探讨。还有人,包括某些大型环保团体,支持进行谨慎的研究。

通过从地球反射太阳光——或许通过将气溶胶注入到平流层——太阳地球工程可以部分抵消因温室气体集聚而导致的能量不平衡。使用绝大多数主要气候模型的研究结果表明 ,太阳地球工程可能会降低主要气候风险,如可用水资源变化、极端降水以及海平面和温度改变。但这种技术的任何版本本身都具有一定的风险性,包括污染空气、破坏臭氧层和意外气候变化等。

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