Rwanda Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

非洲新医学院的核心

旧金山—卢旺达取得了全世界医疗和减贫方面最重大的成果。这个非洲内陆弹丸之国(面积相当于马萨诸塞州,但人口倍之)的初级医疗体系已经发展到几乎全民都能获得临床护理和保险。卢旺达同时降低了经济和医疗不平等性,证明“健康平等”有助于构建强大的社会。

卢旺达成功的秘诀是其领导人正在建设“以传统价值观为基础的现代制度”。他们建立了社区司法系统,称之为“加卡卡”(Gacaca),这套系统将全国和解的需要与仁慈的古老传统相融合。它们的源头可以追溯到“乌姆甘达”(Umuganda)的民间传统,每个月的某一天,包括总统在内的全体公民一起为土地除草,为街道打扫卫生,为最穷的人造房子。

2015年,卢旺达政府与波士顿卫生合作组织(Partners In Health,PIH)在比尔和梅琳达·盖茨基金会和康明斯基金会(Cummings Foundation)的帮助下,成立了私立的非营利全球健康平等性大学(University of Global Health Equity,UGHE)。该大学的立校原则是社会的每一个成员都应该获得同样的看护和机会,并注重于为最需要的人实现高质量医疗。UGHE联合创始人之一、前卫生部长和哈佛医学院兼职教授阿格尼斯·比纳戈瓦胡(Agnes Binagwaho)曾经对我说:“为什么我要让我的孩子在无法做到所有孩子都能获得同样的医疗看护的国家长大?”

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