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Le vrai visage des fausses nouvelles

NEW YORK – Les appareils numériques et les réseaux sociaux actuels fournissent tant d'informations que même les consommateurs les plus avisés ne peuvent en évaluer la totalité. Nous vivons apparemment dans une version du Meilleur des Mondes d'Aldous Huxley, où la vérité est noyée dans une mer de non-pertinence. Mais l'avenir n'est pas tenu d'être la dystopie que le présent semble suggérer.

Le nombre d'Américains qui lisent les nouvelles sur les médias sociaux a augmenté rapidement ces dernières années, pour atteindre 62 % en 2016. Et pourtant selon une récente étude menée par le Pew Research Center, les médias, les universitaires, la technologie et les professionnels de l'édition sont de plus en plus nombreux à considérer Internet comme un cloaque des discours de haine, de colère et de trolls.

On peut décrire une grande partie de ce qui arrive sur notre seuil numérique ces jours-ci comme des fausses nouvelles (fake news) : des canulars, de la propagande et d'autres formes de désinformation. Mais bien que le terme de « fake news » soit une étiquette utile pour un problème très réel, il ne nous dit pas si nous vivons en fait dans un monde de « post-vérité ». Et dans l'affirmative, nous ne savons pas non plus qui doit en être tenu responsable. Pour répondre à ces questions, nous devons examiner l'infrastructure des fausses nouvelles.

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