脆弱的世界

罗马—2010年,全球领导人实现了将世界贫困人口比例在1990年基础上减少一半的千年发展目标(MDG),比时间表领先了五年。但上升的失业和下降的收入让贫困阴影在全世界挥之不去。毕竟,贫困并不是固定群体挥之不去的标签;它是一种威胁着数十亿脆弱(vulnerable)人民的状况。

尽管存在缺陷,但收入指标更有利于理解全世界的贫困和脆弱程度。但衡量MDG减贫目标进展情况的世界银行贫困线——每天1.25美元(以购买力平价衡量)——并不是唯一一个相关阈值。当贫困线提高到每天人均支出2美元时,全球贫困率将从18%提高到约40%,这表明大量人口生活在现有贫困线附近,在外部冲击和个人环境变化(比如价格上涨和收入下降)面前不堪一击。

四分之三的世界穷人生活在农村地区,其中农业工人的贫困发生率最高,这主要是拜低生产率、季节性失业和大部分农业雇主给的工资水平较低所赐。近几十年来,脆弱和经济不安全随短暂、临时、无保障的就业(包括自由职业、兼职工、短工、临时工和随叫随到工作)的增加而增加。在家工作的情况(通常是女性从事的工作)也在上升。

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