El programa del cambio climático se reactiva

LONDRES – Para muchas personas de todo el mundo, este año el tiempo ha dejado de ser un tema de conversación trivial. El tifón Haiyan en las Filipinas, el gélido invierno sin precedentes en los Estados Unidos, la sequía de todo un año en California y las inundaciones en Europa han devuelto los peligros a largo plazo del cambio climático al programa político. Como reacción, el Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas, Ban Ki-moon, ha enviado una carta urgente a los dirigentes gubernamentales, empresariales, de la sociedad civil y de las  finanzas para instarlos a asistir a una Cumbre [especial] sobre el clima, que se celebrará en Nueva York el próximo mes de septiembre.

Esa reunión será la primera en la que los dirigentes mundiales se habrán reunido para examinar el calentamiento planetario desde la decisiva Cumbre de las Naciones Unidas sobre el cambio climático celebrada en Copenhague en 2009. Entre grandes esperanzas –y posteriores recriminaciones– aquella reunión no logró un acuerdo mundial y jurídicamente vinculante para reducir las emisiones de los gases que producen el efecto de invernadero. Así, pues, en la cumbre del próximo septiembre se pedirá a los dirigentes que reanuden el proceso diplomático. El objetivo es un nuevo acuerdo en 2015 para impedir que las temperaturas medias mundiales aumenten en dos grados centígrados, nivel que la comunidad internacional ha considerado “peligroso” para la sociedad humana.

A primera vista, parece una tarea difícil. Desde la cumbre de Copenhague, el cambio climático ha ido perdiendo puestos en el programa mundial, pues el restablecimiento del crecimiento económico, las preocupaciones de los votantes por los puestos de trabajo y los niveles de vida y la violencia en importantes puntos conflictivos han cobrado precedencia.

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