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马克龙的劳工改革开局

剑桥城——8月底,法国总统伊曼纽尔·马克龙公布对劳工市场进行重大改革,该举措将成就或摧毁其总统任期——而且很有可能决定欧元区未来的前景。他的目标是降低法国仅比10%低一点的顽固高失业率,并为迫切需要推动的经济注入活力。

劳工改革一直是法国的政治议程。几乎近期每一届法国政府都曾试图修改该国庞大的劳工法,但每次都在工会的抗议下无疾而终。马克龙面对阻力毫不犹豫:他将劳工改革形容为一次哥白尼式的革命。但这一次结果很可能会有所不同。尽管法国第二大工会已经号召发起大罢工,但仍有迹象显示马克龙将会获得他所需要的政治支持。

马克龙的改革旨在增加被委婉地称为劳动力市场的灵活性。拟议中的改革将降低公司解雇员工的难度,(通过取消行业协议)分散小企业雇主和雇员之间的谈判权,并对非法解雇行为实行赔偿上限制,从而为企业遭受不可预测的仲裁损失提供救济。此外,改革取消了将大企业大规模裁员与公司全球盈利能力挂钩的规定;企业现在可以仅凭国内盈利状况来裁减员工。

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