Militantní islamismus a skepse vůči vakcínám

LONDÝN – Víme, jak vymýtit obrnu. Mezinárodní vakcinační úsilí pod taktovkou Světové zdravotnické organizace dohnalo tento virus od 80. let na pokraj vyhynutí. Nemocí, která zabíjela či ochromovala půl milionu lidí ročně, se dnes nakazí pouhých pár stovek osob.

Úplnému vymýcení tohoto viru přitom nestojí v cestě lékařské či technické překážky, nýbrž politický odpor vůči vakcinačnímu úsilí. Oněch několik málo oblastí, kde virus stále přetrvává, totiž vykazuje znepokojivé podobnosti. Od roku 2012 se 95% případů obrny vyskytlo v pěti zemích – Afghánistánu, Pákistánu, Nigérii, Somálsku a Sýrii –, které jsou postižené islamistickými vzpourami. Chceme-li vymýtit obrnu, musíme tuto vazbu pochopit.

Islamistický odpor vůči vakcinačním programům je často připisován přesvědčení, že vakcíny jsou spiknutím Západu s cílem uškodit muslimům a že sterilizují děti, jsou nakažené virem HIV nebo obsahují vepřové maso. Stojí však za povšimnutí, že džihádisté v Sýrii a Afghánistánu vakcinační kampaně proti obrně do značné míry podporují. Máme-li tedy tento virus pokořit, nezbývá nám než odmítnout zjednodušené vykreslování islamistů coby násilných fanatiků stavějících se na odpor západní vědě a pozorně se zaměřit na specifické politické kontexty tam, kde je snaha o vymýcení viru prozatím neúspěšná.

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