France chicken farm Fred Tanneau/Stringer

Vaincre la faim par une alimentation d’origine végétale

BERLIN – Le mode d’alimentation du monde industrialisé n’est ni sain, ni juste, ni soutenable. Une quantité beaucoup trop importante de la viande que nous mangeons est produite dans des conditions douteuses, que ce soit d’un point de vue écologique, éthique ou social. Et notre modèle industriel de production de viande s’exporte désormais dans les pays du Sud – notamment en Chine et en Inde – où la consommation de viande augmente dans les classes moyennes émergentes.

300 millions de tonnes de viande sont produites chaque année dans le monde, et la FAO, l’Organisation des Nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture, estime qu’en 2050, cette production atteindra 455 millions de tonnes si la demande continue de croître au rythme actuel. De telles quantités de viandes ne peuvent être produites qu’à l’échelle industrielle, avec des coûts sociaux, politiques et écologiques considérables.

La production de viande conduit à une utilisation particulièrement inefficace des terres agricoles, car il faut beaucoup plus d’aliments d’origine végétale pour nourrir le bétail que nous n’en aurions besoin pour notre propre alimentation si celle-ci était directement assurée par un régime à base de végétaux. Ainsi faut-il, pour produire un kilogramme de viande de poulet, de porc ou de bœuf, respectivement 1,6 kilo, 3 kilos et 8 kilos d’aliments pour animaux. C’est pourquoi les producteurs d’aliments pour animaux et les agriculteurs se dressent les uns contre les autres, dans une lutte féroce dont l’enjeu est la terre.

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