Forest fire in Indonesia

扑灭印尼大火

马尼拉—每年,森林火灾都会肆虐印尼,造成巨大的环境、社会和经济破坏。今年的火灾是近20年来最大的,毁掉了三百万英亩土地,导致估计高达140亿美元的农业、森林、卫生、交通和旅游业相关损失。

也许更值得警惕的是其其后影响。印尼已经成为世界上碳排放量最大的国家之一。拜火灾所赐,今年9月和10月日平均排放量比正常水平高出十倍多。光是10月14日一天,火灾碳排放量就高达61百万吨——占当天印尼全国总排放量的近97%。结果,今年的火灾——发生在目前正在巴黎进行的联合国气候变化会议前几周,全世界领导人计划在巴黎会议上完成限制碳排放的全球协议——彰显出印尼及其发展伙伴急需尽快行动解决这一地区和全球灾难。若非如此,气候变化将变得更加难以治理。

印尼反复发生无法控制的大火的原因是焚林开荒种植棕榈油作物的常规作业,部分因厄尔尼诺造成的长期干旱则是助推因素。印尼1999年基本森林法(Basic Forestry Law)和2014年造林法(Law on Plantations)等法律加大了治理故意放火的执法力度,这起到了一些效果,但还需要做更多的事。

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