البحث عن مصاصي الدماء

يُـصَـوِّر تراث القصص الشعبي لأوروبا الشرقية مصاصي الدماء كمخلوقات ليلية تعيش على دماء ضحاياها. وهي مخلوقات من نوع غريب، فقد قامت من بين الأموات. ونحن نعرف أن المثل الأعلى المقدس لتلك الكائنات هو دراكولا ، مصاص الدماء من ترانسلفانيا. وهو شخص يشبه الخفاش له نابان طويلان ويرقد في تابوت أثناء النهار، ثم يقوم في الليل ليعض الأعناق ويمتص دماء ضحاياه فيتغذى عليها ويتقوت بها.

ولكن ما الذي جعلنا على علم بأمر دراكولا ومصاصي الدماء؟ كيف ولماذا تنامت خرافة محلية لكي تتحول في النهاية إلى أحد أكثر مظاهر الثقافة الغربية الحديثة دواماً؟

لم يكن دراكولا ، أو فلاد تيبيس طبقاً لمراجع التاريخ مصاصاً للدماء. فقد ولد فلاد في عام 1431، وحكم على فترات متقطعة منذ عام 1448باعتباره الأمير وويود لإمارة والاتشي ، التي هي القسم الجنوبي من رومانيا اليوم. وكان يتناوش على نحو منتظم مع الإمبراطورية العثمانية ، وملك المجر ماتياس كورفينوس ، وجيوش مدن ترانسلفانيا الخاضعة لحكم الساكسون. وعلى الرغم من الانتصارات المهمة التي سجلها على العثمانيين، إلا أنه وقع في أسر كورفينوس ، ثم قتل بعد ذلك في عام 1477 في إحدى معاركه التي تجددت مع القوات العثمانية.

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