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Russian Police forces seen arresting a protester during the demonstration Victor Kruchinin/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty Images

人权和自由秩序的命运

坎布里奇—许多专家宣称1945年后的自由国际秩序已死,包括1948年《世界人权宣言》所提出的人权机制。最近,《外交政策》(Foreign Policy)在封面上刊登了一幅图,象征人权的白鸽被象征极权主义反动的血淋淋的利箭刺穿。

“现实主义”国际关系理论家的说法,在三个大国中的两个——俄罗斯和中国——反自由的情况下,你无法维系自由世界秩序。亚沙·芒克(Yascha Mounk)和罗伯托·斯特凡·佛阿(Roberto Stefan Foa)在《外交事务》(Foreign Affairs)杂志上的文章中指出,西方自由民主占据世界最强文化和经济力量的时代也许即将结束了。不出五年,“被认为是‘不自由’的国家——如中国、俄罗斯、沙特阿拉伯等——所占全球收入比重将超过西方自由民主国家。”

这一观点存在几个问题。首先,它依赖一个叫作购买力平价的指标,这个指标对于某些目的很有用,但对于比较国际影响力来说没有什么作用。按当前汇率,中国年GDP为12万亿美元,俄罗斯为2.5万亿美元,而美国为20万亿美元。但更严重的缺陷在于将中国和俄罗斯这样差异巨大的国家一股脑儿归结为极权轴心。如今并不存在20世纪30年代纳粹德国及其盟友这样的臭名昭著的轴心。

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