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تكاليف تلوث الهواء الحقيقية

باريس ــ يسلب تلوث الهواء الناس سنوات من أعمارهم، ويتسبب في إحداث قدر كبير من الألم والمعاناة بين البالغين والأطفال على حد سواء. وهو يلحق الضرر بالإنتاج الغذائي، في وقت حيث أصبحنا في احتياج إلى إطعام عدد من الناس أكبر من أي وقت مضى. وهذه ليست قضية اقتصادية فحسب، إنما هي قضية أخلاقية أيضا.

يحدث تلوث الهواء خارج المساكن وداخلها. فيشكل السخام الذي تنتجه مواقد الطهي التي تعتمد على إحراق الفحم والروث داخل المساكن عادة المشكلة الأشد خطورة التي تواجهها الأسر الأكثر فقرا. ومع تطور الاقتصادات واعتمادها على الكهرباء والمحركات وتوسعها حضريا، يصبح التلوث خارج المساكن القضية الأكبر.

الواقع أن التكنولوجيات الأكثر نظافة متاحة بالفعل، وتنطوي على إمكانية تحسين نوعية الهواء إلى حد كبير. ولكن يميل صناع السياسات إلى التركيز على نحو يتسم بقصر النظر على تكاليف العمل، وليس تكاليف التقاعس عن العمل. ومع تسبب النمو الاقتصادي وارتفاع الطلب على الطاقة في تغذية ارتفاع مضطرد في مستوى الانبعاثات من ملوثات الهواء والتركيزات السريعة الارتفاع من المواد الجسيمية والأوزون في العقود المقبلة، يصبح هذا النهج غير قابل للاستمرار.

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