Mahmoud Zayyat/AFP/Getty Images

Hilfe für den Nahen Osten

BEIRUT – Im Libanon sind heute sämtliche Auswirkungen der gegenwärtigen Turbulenzen im Nahen Osten sichtbar. Neu ankommende Flüchtlinge aus Syrien und dem Irak gesellen sich zu palästinensischen Flüchtlingen, die schon lange im Land sind. Seit zwei Jahren hat der Libanon keinen Präsidenten, weil die rivalisierenden politischen Fraktionen – in denen sich die wachsende Feindschaft zwischen deren Unterstützern aus dem Iran und Saudi Arabien widerspiegelt – die nationale Ordnungspolitik schwächen. Die politische Korruption grassiert. Und auch die Müllabfuhr funktioniert nicht immer.

Allerdings zeigen sich im Libanon auch Zeichen der Widerstandskraft. Investoren und Unternehmer gehen Risiken ein und gründen neue Firmen. Zivilgesellschaftliche Gruppen legen Konzepte für nutzbringende Initiativen vor und setzen diese auch um. Flüchtlingskinder besuchen die Schule. Politische Feinde arbeiten zusammen, um Sicherheitsrisiken zu minimieren und religiöse Führungspersönlichkeiten treten für Koexistenz und Toleranz ein.

Diese Widerstandskraft verdankt der Libanon zu einem großen Teil den schmerzlichen Erfahrungen des Bürgerkriegs der Jahre 1975-1990. Im Gegensatz dazu haben die Entwicklungen im Rest der Region – zu denen eine lange Geschichte autokratischer Staatsführung sowie die Vernachlässigung lange schwelender Missstände gehören – die Konflikte weiter geschürt. Syrien, der Irak und der Jemen sind derzeit aufgrund von Kriegen gespalten. Unterdessen stellt die sich verschärfende Notlage der Palästinenser weiterhin eine andauernde Frustration in der arabischen und muslimischen Welt dar. Inmitten dieser  Wirrnisse gedeihen neue radikale Gruppen mit grenzüberschreitender Agenda.

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