anti-globalization Jean Philippe Ksiazek/Getty Images

Mondialisation et fractures politiques

NEW YORK – Le vote à une étroite majorité du Royaume-Uni en faveur du Brexit a des causes spécifiquement britanniques. Mais au moins dans les pays avancés, c'est plus largement l'expression d'une réaction populiste/nationaliste contre la mondialisation, le libre-échange, les délocalisations, l'immigration économique, les mesures favorables aux marchés, les autorités supranationales et même les changements technologiques.

Or dans les pays avancés riches en capitaux mais pauvres en main d'œuvre, toutes ces tendances poussent à la baisse le salaire des travailleurs peu qualifiés, ainsi que le nombre d'emplois qu'ils peuvent occuper. Par contre dans les pays émergents disposant d'une main d'œuvre abondante,  elles poussent leur salaire à la hausse et accroissent le nombre d'emplois qui leur sont proposés. Les consommateurs des pays avancés bénéficient ainsi de produits importés à faible prix, mais les travailleurs peu qualifiés ou même moyennement qualifiés voient leur salaire baisser parallèlement à leur salaire d'équilibre, tandis que leur emploi est souvent menacé.

Le référendum sur le Brexit a fait apparaître clairement les fractures : entre riches et pauvres, entre gagnants et perdants de la mondialisation, entre ceux qui ont fait des études supérieures et les autres, entre les ruraux et les citadins, entre les partisans de la diversité et les communautés plus homogènes. Ces mêmes fractures existent aussi dans d'autres pays avancés, notamment aux USA et en Europe continentale.

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