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工作在自动化的未来

伦敦——随着创新越来越模糊了物理、数字和生物领域之间的界限,破坏性的技术正在决定我们的未来。机器人已经进入我们的手术室和快餐店;我们现在可以利用3D成像和干细胞提取技术从患者自身的细胞培养出人类骨骼;3D打印正在创造一种循环经济,我们可以利用、然后再利用原材料。

这种技术创新的海啸将持续深刻地影响我们的生活和工作,以及我们社会的运行方式。在当前被称为第四次工业革命的时代,即将到来的技术——包括机器人技术、纳米技术、虚拟现实技术、3D打印技术、物联网、人工智能和先进生物技术——都将实现融会贯通。随着这些技术得到持续发展和广泛应用,所有学科、行业和经济领域都将产生根本性的变化,改变个人、企业和社会生产、分配、消费和处置商品和服务的方式。

上述进展引发了人们对技术驱动型时代人类扮演角色的焦虑。2013年一项牛津大学研究估计今后二十年,自动化可能导致美国失去半数以上的就业机会。而另一方面,波士顿大学的詹姆斯·贝森等经济学家提出自动化往往会带来新的就业机会。那么自动化究竟将给人类带来什么——新的工作还是大规模结构性失业?

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