children playing Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Financer la santé et l’éducation pour tous

NEW YORK – En 2015, environ 5,9 millions d’enfants de moins de cinq ans, presque tous dans des pays en développement, sont morts d’affections qu’on aurait pu facilement prévenir ou traiter. Et l’on compte, selon des estimations récentes, jusqu’à 200 millions de jeunes enfants et d’adolescents exclus de l’enseignement primaire ou secondaire, parce qu’ils sont pauvres, dont 110 millions privés d’accès au premier cycle de l’enseignement secondaire. Dans les deux cas, d’immenses souffrances pourraient être évitées par un financement mondial relativement modeste.

Les causes de mortalité infantile qui accablent les pays pauvres – naissances données dans de mauvaises conditions d’hygiène, maladies que la vaccination pourrait prévenir, infections, comme le paludisme, pour lesquelles existent des traitements bon marché et carences nutritionnelles – ont été presque totalement éliminées des pays riches. Dans un monde doué de sens moral, nous consacrerions tous nos efforts à empêcher ces morts.

Et le monde n’a fait que de timides efforts. Les morts de jeunes enfants sont inférieures d’un peu plus de la moitié aux 12,7 millions enregistrées en 1990, grâce à l’augmentation des financements internationaux de la lutte contre les maladies, portés par de nouvelles institutions, comme le Fonds mondial de lutte contre le Sida, la tuberculose et le paludisme.

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