Tři hrozby pro globální zdraví

SAN FRANCISCO – Tragická epidemie eboly v západní Africe podtrhla nutnost posílit zdravotnické systémy na státní i globální úrovni. Ačkoliv však ebola zaměřila pozornost světa na systémové nedostatky, cílem musí být boj s trvalými epidemiemi, které v tichosti způsobují utrpení a smrt populací všude na světě.

Ebola bezpochyby vyvolává strašlivá muka. Není to však první – ani nejničivější – pandemie, které kdy svět čelil. Ve skutečnosti jsou nejsmrtelnější nemocí, jakou lidstvo poznalo, pravé neštovice; než Edward Jenner vyvinul v roce 1796 vakcínu, byla to hlavní příčina úmrtí v Evropě. A až do svého vymýcení v roce 1980 zabila tato nemoc odhadem 300-500 milionů lidí.

Dýmějový mor si ve 14. století vyžádal životy 75-100 milionů lidí – více než poloviny evropské populace. Téměř 75 milionů osob neboli 3-5% světové populace zase zemřelo během několika měsíců v roce 1918, kdy vypukla chřipková pandemie – byl to více než dvojnásobek počtu lidí padlých v první světové válce.

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