地球足矣

哥本哈根-按传统智慧的观点,我们使用地球上的资源太过奢侈,而我们的生活所需远远大于地球所能提供的资源。这种遗憾和悲观的论调是当今环境讨论的基调,并往往是以简单化的方式得出的:即到2030年,由于生活水准的提高和人口的增长,我们将需要两个地球来维持我们的生活。若现在每个人都按美国的生活标准生活,我们将需要近五个地球。然而,这种深入人心的智慧从根本上来说是错误的。

环保人士用所谓的“生态足迹” 的概念–即我们每个人需要在这个星球上占有多少面积-来阐述他们的观点。我们显然用了耕地、牧场、森林和渔场来生产食品、纤维和木材,而且我们还需要空间来造房、修路和建设城市。此外,因能源的使用而排放出的废物还需要地面来吸收。将所有这些需求转换成一种实际需求面积的共同单位,这给了我们一个机会把它与地球的生产性面积相比较-从而体会一下我们到底有着怎样的可持续性。

10多年来,世界野生动物基金和其他一些保护组织通过复杂的计算确定了每个人在这个星球上的“足迹”。他们得出了如下一组数字,即每个美国人使用的地球面积是九点四公顷,每个欧洲人是四点七公顷,那些在低收入国家每人只用了一公顷。把这些都加在一起,我们集体总共使用了一百七十五亿公顷。

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