Construction workers Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

À espera da revolução da construção

LONDRES –Em 20 anos, a produtividade na indústria da construção global cresceu a um ritmo anual de apenas 1%. Agora, a indústria precisa entrar no século XXI, para que possa dar resposta à crescente procura de novas estruturas e fazer face às lacunas que existem cada vez mais, a nível mundial, nas habitações e nas infraestruturas.

O ritmo desanimado da mudança da indústria da construção é diferente do ritmo de outros setores como a agricultura e a produção fabril, que transformaram o seu desempenho de produtividade ao longo do tempo. Entre 1947 e 2010, a produção fabril dos EUA alcançou 760% no crescimento acumulado na produtividade real (ajustado pela inflação), em comparação com apenas 6% na construção.

Embora a indústria da construção civil já tenha reconhecido as suas fraquezas há muito tempo, ainda tem de reunir a vontade de fazer alguma coisa em relação a elas. Mas, dada a habitação premente e as falhas nas infraestruturas ao redor do mundo, isso não é mais sustentável. A urbanização pode estar a estabilizar em muitas economias avançadas, mas continuará nos países emergentes. Estima-se que as 20 maiores cidades do mundo, 75% das quais ficam na Ásia, irão precisar de 36 milhões de unidades de habitação até 2025.

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