eating on everest gromanuk/Flickr

Una dieta saludable y amigable con el clima

BERLÍN – En diciembre, los líderes mundiales se reunirán en París para la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático, donde conseguirán sacar adelante un acuerdo integral para reducir las emisiones de carbono y frenar el calentamiento global. En el período previo a esa reunión, los gobiernos de todo el mundo deberían observar un dato crítico pero que muchas veces se pasa por alto: el mayor generador de degradación ambiental y agotamiento de recursos hoy es nuestra dienta cambiante -una dieta que tampoco conduce particularmente a una vida saludable.

En las últimas décadas, los crecientes ingresos han catalizado un cambio importante en los hábitos alimenticios de la gente. La carne, en particular, se volvió un componente cada vez más importante en las dietas de las personas. Como criar y transportar ganado requiere de más alimentos, tierra, agua y energía que cultivar plantas, una mayor demanda de carne agota los recursos naturales, ejerce presión sobre los sistemas de producción de alimentos, daña los ecosistemas y propicia el cambio climático.

La producción de carne requiere una cantidad de agua unas diez veces mayor que las calorías y proteínas de origen vegetal. Un kilo de carne vacuna, por ejemplo, requiere 15.415 litros de agua. También es una manera ineficiente de generar alimentos; se necesitan hasta 30 calorías de cultivos para producir una caloría de carne.

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