China's solar energy panel Kevin Frayer/Getty Images

La révolution de la Chine en énergie renouvelable

BEIJING – Au début de 2017, la Chine a annoncé qu’elle investirait, d’ici 2020, 360 milliards $ dans les énergies renouvelables et qu’elle annulerait les projets de création de 85 centrales thermiques alimentées au charbon. En mars, les autorités chinoises ont signalé que le pays a déjà dépassé ses cibles officielles d’efficacité énergétique, d’intensité en carbone et de part de marché des sources d’énergie propre. De plus, le mois dernier, l’agence responsable de la réglementation du secteur de l’énergie en Chine, l’Administration de l’énergie nationale, a mis en place de nouvelles mesures de réduction de la dépendance du pays sur le charbon.

Ces développements ne sont que quelques indices récents que la Chine est au centre de la transformation mondiale de l’énergie, qui est propulsée par l’évolution des technologies et la baisse des coûts de production d’énergie renouvelable. Or, la Chine ne fait pas qu’investir dans des énergies renouvelables et de l’élimination graduelle du charbon. Elle compte pour une part grandissante de la demande mondiale d’énergie, ce qui signifie que la transition continue de l’économie vers la croissance orientée sur les services et la consommation remodèlera le secteur des ressources dans le monde entier.

En même temps, d’autres facteurs réduisent déjà la consommation mondiale en ressources, dont une plus grande efficacité énergétique dans les résidences, les bâtiments industriels et les édifices commerciaux. Ils diminuent aussi la demande d’énergie en transport, grâce à la prolifération des véhicules autonomes et du covoiturage.

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