china rural village Zhang Peng/LightRocket/Getty Images

O Fim da Pobreza na China?

PEQUIM — Uma das estatísticas mais citadas sobre a China pode muito bem ser o número de chineses que foram retirados da pobreza ao longo dos últimos 35 anos. Mais de 800 milhões é um número muito significativo — e um feito extraordinário. Na verdade, nenhum outro país atingiu um tal nível de redução da pobreza num período tão curto. Mas o que dizer dos milhões de chineses que ficaram para trás?

O governo da China está empenhado em terminar a tarefa, com o objectivo de, até 2020, reduzir a pobreza rural para praticamente zero. As autoridades fizeram primeiramente a promessa nas Nações Unidas em 2015, e reiteraram-na subsequentemente em contextos oficiais. No entanto, o cumprimento dessa promessa — que agora implica melhorar o bem-estar de cerca de 45 milhões de pessoas, o equivalente a aproximadamente toda a população do Sudão — terá custos significativos.

A redução da pobreza, tal como tantos esforços importantes, está sujeita à lei dos rendimentos decrescentes: quanto mais se pratica algo, menos produtivos se tornam os esforços. Pensemos em quando se dá corda a um relógio: quanto mais rodar a corda, maior será a resistência acumulada na mola principal, e será necessária mais energia para que o ponteiro percorra a mesma distância.

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