China corruption Isaac Lawrence/Getty Images

反腐下一程

香港—腐败是一种癌症,没有哪个社会能够免疫。它让伊朗因为十年前建造的劣质住房而导致更多的百姓在最近的地震中死亡。它冲击到美国海军,有超过60名将领和数百名官兵正在接受有关欺诈和贿赂的调查。它让许多政府失去了政权,包括去年的巴西总统罗塞夫的政府和蒋介石的国民党政府。

The Year Ahead 2018

The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

Order now

作为历史的好学生,习近平主席深知腐败的破坏力,并能直面这一弊端。但是,随着中国经济的不断现代化,还有很多工作要做。

在20世纪80年代的经济改革之前,腐败在中国规模相对较小,因为有限的市场规模及相对强势的道德规范限制了滥用行政权力的机会。但是,随着市场化的深入,相应的监管公权力也不断扩大,加上立法不完善及制度保障不健全,腐败和行政权力滥用越来越肆无忌惮。与此同时,随着收入和教育水平的提高和公众道德意识的回升,公民不再轻易地容忍权力滥用,越来越要求政府透明、依法地行使公权与提供基本公共品,包括基础设施、环境保护以及收入和机会的公平分配。

认识到腐败对党和国家合法性和权威的破坏力,习近平展开了规模、范围和深度前所未见的反腐运动。在过去五年中,这场反腐运动令不下440名省级官员、8,900名市级官员、63,000名县级官员和278,000名村级官员遭到停职、处分和其他惩罚。大约58,000名个人被刑事调查。在中共8,900万党员中,1.7%受到了影响,其中既包括“老虎”(党的高级领导人),也包括“苍蝇”(一般官员)。

反腐行动还远未结束。上个月的中共十九大提出要成立国家监察委员会来巩固反腐成果,及建立现代化反腐机构,其反腐范围将超越党员,覆盖各级别行使公权力的所有官员。但从历史及国际经验来看,构建强健而持续的反腐机制绝非易事,因为腐败官员往往会竭尽全力去影响、甚至操纵这些机构。

例如,2007—2008年全球金融危机就暴露了发达经济体中的腐败,既得利益集团为了确保他们的利益,乘机巩固了他们在立法和监管方面的影响力。美国最高法院在2010年颁布的臭名昭著的联合公民裁决(Citizens United)就积极地鼓励了这样的结果,允许公司和工会可匿名动用无限量的资金用于竞选,来确保候选人当选或败选。这项裁决导致2016年选举周期的预算外支出达到了近14亿美元,而2006年的选举周期的预算外支出只有不到1亿美元,使得美国的民主制度在公平、道德、及合法性方面出现倒退。

因此,腐败不只是政府失灵;它和市场、法律、道德和意识形态体系的失灵也息息相关。金融市场和网络经济往往会造成经济和社会权力的集中,如果这些集中的权力被用于俘虏和控制政治权力,那么在正常情况下有效的制衡系统也会失灵。

伦敦经济学院人类学家大卫·格雷伯尔(David Graeber)从政治活动参与者如何与官僚体系互动的角度来分析这个问题。格雷伯尔指出,右翼政治集团往往喜欢谴责过度的官僚制度和行为。但他们的解决方案——减少政府角色,让市场力量来接管官僚——实际上却有可能加剧积重难返的官僚主义扩张。

格雷伯尔用他所谓的“自由主义的铁律”总结了这一观点:“任何市场化改革,任何旨在减少红头文件、促进市场力量的政府计划,都会导致监管规则总量、红头文件总量和政府雇用的官僚总人数增加的最终效应。” 换句话说,市场能够有效运转的前提是有一个能干、诚实、公平的政府为市场公平运作提出合适的指引,并有效地防止滥用权力及腐败,包括阻止市场人士行贿及官僚受贿。

这对中国有什么启发?首先,政府需要制定现代机制来解决因产权或市场交易规则不明晰而产生的民事纠纷。在这方面,中国可以从西方普通法体系(循例断案)中汲取有益经验,也可以从行政诉讼法庭解决官民纠纷的做法汲取有益经验。香港廉政公署也提供了有益的榜样。

与此同时,中国需要减少官员从事腐败活动的吸引力,包括提高各级别公务员的薪酬。目前,官员的薪酬常常参考国民收入总水平制定,但这导致有些行业与地区官员的薪酬过低,难以产生抵抗力来拒绝在一些重要的高利润部门(如能源、金融和房地产)以权谋私的诱惑。

在发达经济体,官员薪酬要高得多,他们也面临离职后在其监管行业内就业的各种限制。而在中国,一些官员往往为了离职后得到回馈来帮助利益集团获利。

确保政府问责并同时防止既得利益俘虏权力机构并不容易,因为在这个过程中,不仅需要对公权力的制衡及相应的公务员激励机制,还需要建立恰当的道德观来抵消易受诱惑的官僚体系内的负能量,从而培育对腐败的持久抵抗力。这也许是中国在实现习近平提出的“中国梦”过程中最为艰巨的挑战。但就目前而言,中国的反腐大致已经进入正确的轨道。

http://prosyn.org/h5mhnbr/zh;

Handpicked to read next

  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now