Mythes et idées fausses autour de Tchernobyl

Le vingtième anniversaire de l’accident nucléaire de Tchernobyl du 26 avril 1986 suscite une nouvelle vague de déclarations alarmistes concernant son impact sur la santé humaine et l’environnement. Conformément au rituel observé lors de telles commémorations, le bilan s’élève à des centaines de milliers de victimes et l’on rapporte récemment des taux élevés de cancers, de malformations à la naissance et de mortalité générale.

Cette image est à la fois largement déformée et préjudiciable pour les victimes de l’accident de Tchernobyl. Toutes les études scientifiques sérieuses réalisées jusqu’ici ont conclu que l’impact des rayonnements a été moins dangereux qu’on ne le craignait. Une dizaine de pompiers qui ont bravé le feu dans le réacteur ont succombé à de graves irradiations. Des analyses sont encore en cours concernant les taux élevés de cancers et de maladies cardiovasculaires parmi les membres de l’équipe d’intervention ayant travaillé sur le site au cours des mois qui ont suivi l’accident.

Et quelques 5 000 cas de cancers de la thyroïde, attribués à l’iode radioactif absorbé dans le lait consommé au cours des semaines suivant l’accident, ont été détectés parmi les personnes qui étaient enfants au moment du drame.

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