Energía renovable y pobreza

MIAMI – El secretario general de las Naciones Unidas, Ban Ki-moon, declaró: “Los más afectados por el cambio climático son los pobres”. Lo cual es cierto, porque los pobres son los más vulnerables y los que menos recursos tienen para adaptarse al cambio. Pero a menudo se olvida que las políticas actuales contra el calentamiento global están causando un gran aumento del costo de la energía que perjudica sobremanera a los habitantes más pobres del mundo.

La generación de energía solar y eólica recibió 60.000 millones de dólares en subsidios en 2012. Esto implica que el mundo gastó en energía 60.000 millones de dólares más que lo necesario. Y como el beneficio climático logrado equivale a unos escasos 1.400 millones de dólares, esto quiere decir, básicamente, que con los subsidios se derrocharon 58.600 millones de dólares. Además, se usaron otros 19.000 millones de dólares en subsidios a los biocombustibles, básicamente sin ningún beneficio climático. Todo ese dinero se podría haber usado en mejorar la atención de la salud, contratar más maestros, hacer mejores rutas o reducir impuestos.

Obligar a todo el mundo a comprar energía más cara y menos confiable eleva los costos en toda la economía y deja menos dinero disponible para la provisión de otros bienes públicos. En promedio, los modelos macroeconómicos señalan que desde 2020 hasta que termine el siglo, el costo total de la política climática de la UE será 209.000 millones de euros (280.000 millones de dólares) por año.

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