Una solución local para la seguridad energética de Europa

COPENHAGUE – La Unión Europea es altamente dependiente del petróleo extranjero. De cada 100 litros que se consumen en la UE, 90 son importados. Al mismo tiempo, la producción local de petróleo cayó más del 50% a lo largo de la última década. La Agencia Internacional de la Energía estima que a menos que la UE cambie de rumbo y aumente su producción de formas de energía alternativas (incluidos los biocombustibles, una opción que la UE desatendió por mucho tiempo), en 2030 más o menos el 95% del petróleo que consuma provendrá de fuentes extranjeras.

La situación actual es el talón de Aquiles de la UE, porque implica dependencia de importaciones procedentes de regímenes inestables y autoritarios. En 2014, los países miembros de la UE gastaron la asombrosa cifra de 271 000 millones de euros en crudo extranjero, más que el PIB combinado de Bulgaria, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia y Hungría. Aproximadamente la mitad de esta cifra terminó en Rusia, Medio Oriente y el norte de África.

De modo que la UE no solo está expuesta a interrupciones del suministro global, sino que también ayuda a sostener gobiernos autoritarios y dar poder a regímenes hostiles, lo que limita su propia capacidad para dar respuestas efectivas y coordinadas a las amenazas y provocaciones externas. De lo cual dan buen ejemplo sus dificultades para diseñar estrategias políticas y económicas coherentes ante los desafíos planteados por la agresión rusa en Ucrania y el infierno de Medio Oriente.

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