Shangai robots VCG

¿Gravar a los robots con impuestos?

ATENAS – Ken gana lo suficiente para vivir una vida digna al operar una gran cosechadora para un agricultor llamado Luke. El sueldo de Ken genera impuestos sobre la renta y pagos de seguridad social que ayudan a financiar programas gubernamentales para los miembros menos afortunados de su comunidad. Pero, ¡oh, caramba!, Luke está a punto de reemplazar a Ken con Nexus, un robot que puede operar la cosechadora durante más tiempo, con mayor seguridad, en cualquier clima, y sin pausas para el almuerzo, y además no toma vacaciones, ni percibe subsidios por enfermedad.

Bill Gates piensa que, para aliviar la desigualdad y compensar los costos sociales implícitos por los efectos de desplazamiento que conlleva la automatización, Nexus debería pagar impuestos sobre la renta, o Luke debería pagar un fuerte impuesto por reemplazar a Ken con un robot. Y, se debería usar este “impuesto a los robots” para financiar algo que sería como una renta básica universal (RBI). La propuesta de Gates, una de las muchas variantes del tema RBI, nos permite vislumbrar aspectos fascinantes del capitalismo y de la naturaleza humana que las sociedades ricas han descuidado durante demasiado tiempo.

El punto central de la automatización es que, a diferencia de Ken, Nexus nunca negociará un contrato laboral con Luke. De hecho, Nexus no va a recibir ninguna renta. La única manera de simular un impuesto sobre la renta a nombre de Nexus es usar la cifra de los ingresos anuales del último año en el que Ken trabajó, usándola como salario de referencia, y extraer de los ingresos de Luke el equivalente a los impuestos sobre la renta que Luke pagaba y los cargos por seguridad social que Ken pagaba.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/nt1NIAw/es;
  1. Sean Gallup/Getty Images

    Angela Merkel’s Endgame?

    The collapse of coalition negotiations has left German Chancellor Angela Merkel facing a stark choice between forming a minority government or calling for a new election. But would a minority government necessarily be as bad as Germans have traditionally thought?

  2. Trump Trade speech Bill Pugliano/Getty Images .

    Preparing for the Trump Trade Wars

    In the first 11 months of his presidency, Donald Trump has failed to back up his words – or tweets – with action on a variety of fronts. But the rest of the world's governments, and particularly those in Asia and Europe, would be mistaken to assume that he won't follow through on his promised "America First" trade agenda.

  3. A GrabBike rider uses his mobile phone Bay Ismoyo/Getty Images

    The Platform Economy

    While developed countries in Europe, North America, and Asia are rapidly aging, emerging economies are predominantly youthful. Nigerian, Indonesian, and Vietnamese young people will shape global work trends at an increasingly rapid pace, bringing to bear their experience in dynamic informal markets on a tech-enabled gig economy.

  4. Trump Mario Tama/Getty Images

    Profiles in Discouragement

    One day, the United States will turn the page on Donald Trump. But, as Americans prepare to observe their Thanksgiving holiday, they should reflect that their country's culture and global standing will never recover fully from the wounds that his presidency is inflicting on them.

  5. Mugabe kisses Grace JEKESAI NJIKIZANA/AFP/Getty Images

    How Women Shape Coups

    In Zimbabwe, as in all coups, much behind-the-scenes plotting continues to take place in the aftermath of the military's overthrow of President Robert Mugabe. But who the eventual winners and losers are may depend, among other things, on the gender of the plotters.

  6. Oil barrels Ahmad Al-Rubaye/Getty Images

    The Abnormality of Oil

    At the 2017 Abu Dhabi Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, the consensus among industry executives was that oil prices will still be around $60 per barrel in November 2018. But there is evidence to suggest that the uptick in global growth and developments in Saudi Arabia will push the price as high as $80 in the meantime.

  7. Israeli soldier Menahem Kahana/Getty Images

    The Saudi Prince’s Dangerous War Games

    Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is working hard to consolidate power and establish his country as the Middle East’s only hegemon. But his efforts – which include an attempt to trigger a war between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon – increasingly look like the work of an immature gambler.