Farmers in Vietnam Hoang Dinh Nam/AFP/Getty Images

Masa Depan Pertanian di Asia

MANILA – Banyak orang di Asia menganggap bahwa kekurangan pangan adalah sebuah permasalahan masa lalu. Namun negara-negara di Asia kini mengalami kesulitan untuk menjamin kecukupan pangan dan nutrisi untuk populasi yang kian meningkat sehingga permasalahan kekurangan pangan mungkin untuk terjadi lagi.

Asia telah menjadi pasar makanan terbesar di dunia, dan diperkirakan bahwa populasi di wilayah ini akan mencapai lima milyar pada tahun 2050 – dimana terjadi peningkatan sebesar 900 juta orang. Karena adanya peningkatan jumlah kelas menengah di Asia, wilayah ini diperkirakan akan menyumbang setengah dari total peningkatan konsumsi daging dan unggas global serta lebih dari tiga perempat dari peningkatan konsumsi ikan hingga tahun 2030. Dan pada tahun 2030, lebih dari 60% total permintaan sereal di negara berkembang akan datang dari Asia Selatan dan Asia Timur. Untuk memenuhi peningkatan permintaan ini, produksi makanan harus mengalami peningkatan sebesar 60-70% dibandingkan satu dekade yang lalu.  

Dalam skenario yang ideal, petani di Asia dapat meningkatkan hasil pertanian mereka. Namun, mereka tidak mempunyai kapasitas untuk melakukan hal tersebut. Untuk memproduksi bahan pangan yang cukup, pertanian di Asia harus melakukan transformasi agar sesuai dengan tuntutan abad ke dua puluh satu.

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