Gage Skidmore/Wikimedia Commons

Die Stimmen hinter Angelina Jolie

NEW YORK – Am 26. Mai ist Angelina Jolies Tante, Debbie Martin, im Alter von 61 Jahren an Brustkrebs gestorben. Jolies Mutter, Marcheline Bertrand, verstarb mit 56 Jahren an Eierstockkrebs. Zwei Wochen vor dem Tod ihrer Tante hatte Angelina Jolie öffentlich gemacht, dass sie sich vorsorglich beide Brüste amputieren ließ, nachdem sie positiv auf eine Mutation des Gens BRCA getestet worden war. Diese Mutation erhöht das Risiko einer Frau an Brustkrebs zu erkranken um das Fünffache und einer Erkrankung an Eistockkrebs um das 28-Fache.

Der Test auf eine BRCA-Mutation ist teuer – er kostet um die 3.500 US-Dollar. In den Vereinigten Staaten übernehmen Krankenversicherungen die Kosten nur, wenn Familienangehörige ersten Grades – zum Beispiel die Mutter einer Frau – Brust- oder Eistockkrebs hatten; andere Frauen müssen selbst für die Kosten aufkommen. In Anbetracht der Vorteile von Vorsorge und Prävention ist ein heftiger Streit um den Test entbrannt, weil der Hersteller, Myriad Genetics, ein Genpatent hält, das ihm ein Monopol auf alle Tests – und Riesenprofite – verschafft.

Angelina Jolies Bekanntgabe hat auf dieses Problem aufmerksam gemacht. Sie zählt ohnehin zu den seltenen Unterhaltungskünstlerinnen/Sexsymbolen, die − wie Madonna und einige wenige andere Frauen − weitgehend selbst diktiert, welche „Bedeutung“ ihrer Berühmtheit zugeschrieben wird. Für Angelina Jolie bedeutet das, ihren Status als Ikone häufig dafür zu nutzen, eine positive Agenda zu fördern, ob es um syrische Flüchtlinge in Jordanien oder Aufmerksamkeit für das Thema Brustkrebs geht.

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