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Расшатанная демократия Америки

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – Алексис де Токвиль, либеральный Французский аристократ, посетил Соединенные Штаты в 1831 году, под предлогом написания своего изучения “просвещенной” пенитенциарной системы (изоляция людей в одиночной камере, подобно кающимся монахам, была последней современной идеей). После этой поездки вышел шедевр Токвиля, Демократия в Америке, в котором он выразил восхищение Американскими гражданскими свободами и сравнил первую в мире подлинную либеральную демократию с институтами Старого Света.

Но, у де Токвиля, также, были серьезные сомнения. По его мнению, самую большую опасность для Американской демократии представляла тирания большинства, удушающая интеллектуальное соответствие американской жизни, подавляющая мнение меньшинства и инакомыслие. Он был убежден, что любое проявление неограниченной власти, будь то отдельного деспота или политического большинства, обязано закончиться катастрофой.

Демократии, в понятии принципа большинства, необходимы ограничения, как и любой другой системе управления. Именно поэтому британцы смешали авторитет избранных политиков с аристократической привилегией. И именно поэтому американцы, все еще дорожат своим Конституционным разделением правительственных полномочий.

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