shipping containers trade Spaces Images/Getty Images

关于美国贸易赤字的令人不快的事实

坎布里奇—美国的贸易赤字大约为4,500亿美元,或GDP的2.5%。这意味着美国进口的商品和服务要比它出口给世界其他国家的多4,500亿美元。如何解释美国年复一年的巨大赤字?若要降低赤字,美国人的生活水平会如何变化?

很容易将巨额贸易赤字归咎于阻挠美国政府在本国市场销售的外国政府,这伤害了美国企业,也降低了这些企业员工的生活水平。也很容易将巨额贸易赤字归咎于补贴对美出口的外国政府,这伤害了销售败给外国供应商的美国企业和员工(尽管在外国政府补贴美国消费者所购买的东西时,美国家庭作为一个整体是受益者)。

但外国进口壁垒和出口补贴都不是美国贸易赤字的原因。真正的原因是美国人花的比挣的多。总贸易赤字是美国家庭和企业的储蓄和投资决定的结果。外国政府的政策只能影响这一赤字如何在美国贸易伙伴之间分配。

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