Andrew Xu/Getty Images

Lahirnya Transportasi Udara yang Ramah Iklim

MONTREAL – Seiring meningkatnya konektivitas global, kebutuhan atas transportasi udara terus bertambah, diperkirakan lebih dari 30.000 pesawat berukuran besar akan mengudara dalam beberapa tahun ke depan. Tetapi, jika kita ingin mempertahankan perkembangan ini tanpa memperburuk perubahan iklim, kita harus dengan cepat mengurangi emisi CO2 terkait penerbangan, sebuah hal mendesak dan tidak termuat dalam Perjanjian Paris mengenai perubahan iklim yang ditandatangani lebih dari 190 negara pada bulan Desember lalu.

Untungnya, sekarang merupakan waktu yang tepat untuk memisahkan emisi penerbangan dari pertumbuhan perjalanan udara. Perwakilan dari 191 negara bertemu di Montreal pekan ini untuk menghadiri Sesi ke-39 Pertemuan Organisasi Penerbangan Sipil Dunia (ICAO) di bawah naungan PBB; setelah melalui perselisihan selama puluhan tahun, akhirnya mereka menyepakati perjanjian iklim khusus industri penerbangan.

Kerangka ICAO yang baru bertujuan mencapai “pertumbuhan netral karbon” (carbon-neutral growth) dalam sektor penerbangan dunia dimulai tahun 2020 dan seterusnya, juga memuat aturan pokok yaitu upaya global berbasis pasar (GMBM atau global market-based measure) untuk membantu maskapai memangkas emisi karbon sesuai target pada tahun 2020, tanpa mengeluarkan banyak biaya. Saat diterapkan nanti, kerangka tersebut menjadi skema pembatas emisi karbon pertama untuk industri skala global yang tidak akan berdampak pada kenaikan biaya secara besar-besaran untuk konsumen. Maskapai bisa membeli penurunan emisi dari sektor perekonomian lainnya, sehingga akan menyalurkan miliaran dolar untuk pembangunan rendah karbon di seluruh dunia.

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