Girl with a cut-out of Africa Miss Hibiscus/Getty Images

赋权非洲经济的另一半

约翰内斯堡—坦桑尼亚建国总统朱利乌斯·尼雷尔曾说,“联合”无法让非洲变富,但“可以让非洲和非洲人民不再那么容易被轻视、被屈辱。”但是,二十年过去了,仍然有一条断层线将非洲一分为二,那就是性别。要想实现尼雷尔的让非洲成为一个强大的、有尊严的大洲的愿景,非洲需要一个自由的新时代,为非洲妇女经济赋权能够为这个时代增添动力。

麦肯锡咨询公司预测,到2040年,非洲将拥有全世界最大规模的劳动力,工作年龄人扣将超11亿人,但在非洲当前人口中,超过60%的人生活水平仍然低于每天2美元。显然,尽管许多非洲人从政治解放中获益——这是尼雷尔这一代人留下的遗产——但贫困仍然是一个巨大的障碍。释放非洲妇女的就业潜力,是克服这一障碍的最佳办法。

目前,非洲妇女在重要行业和管理岗位上仍然鲜有代表人物,造成这一现象的原因是职场歧视和父权家庭。除非能够取消阻碍妇女进入正式经济的壁垒,让妇女拥有充分实现她们的潜力的选择,否则非洲社会经济发展将继续饱受抑制。但是,尽管妇女对于非洲的进步至关重要,她们仍然常被视为二等公民。因此,妇女必须主张她们参与决策的权利,主张她们参与影响她们以及未来非洲人民生活的政策、计划和战略的权利。

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