african infrastructure Mimi Mollica/Getty Images

„Big Bonds“ für Afrika

LAGOS – Die Länder Afrikas südlich der Sahara stehen vor einen wichtigen Wendepunkt. Nach dem Zusammenbruch der Rohstoffpreise und der wirtschaftlichen Verlangsamung in China ging das Wachstum der Region im Jahr 2015 auf 3,4% zurück – dies liegt fast 50% unter dem Durchschnittswert der letzten fünfzehn Jahre. Die Schätzungen für 2016 liegen niedriger als die Wachstumsrate der Bevölkerung von etwa 2%, was pro Kopf betrachtet einen Rückgang des BIP bedeutet.

Weiteres Wirtschaftswachstum ist dringend nötig, um Armut, Kindersterblichkeit, Krankheiten und Unterernährung zu bekämpfen. Außerdem ist es der einzige Weg, um genug gute Arbeitsplätze für Afrikas junge Bevölkerung zu schaffen – der am schnellsten wachsenden der Welt. Wie Gerd Müller, der deutsche Minister für Entwicklungshilfe, kürzlich auf einer Pressekonferenz bemerkte: „Wenn die afrikanische Jugend in ihren eigenen Ländern keine Arbeit und Zukunft mehr finden kann, kommen nicht mehr Hunderttausende nach Europa, sondern Millionen.“

Eine Methode, in Afrika Wachstum zu sichern und Arbeitsplätze zu schaffen, ist die gemeinschaftliche Planung und Umsetzung massiv steigender Investitionen in Infrastruktur. Am wichtigsten ist dabei der öffentliche Sektor. Dazu gehören Straßen, Brücken und Schienennetze, die die landwirtschaftlichen Produzenten der Binnenstaaten mit den städtischen Konsumenten und externen Märkten Afrikas verbinden. Mit umfassenden Investitionen in die Internet- und Verkehrsinfrastruktur kann der Handel gefördert werden, und durch neue Stromleitungen werden privat finanzierte Kraftwerke und Netze miteinander verbunden.

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