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非洲年轻人失业问题让年轻人来解决

多伦多—放眼非洲,年轻人正在迁徙。这一大规模的移民运动给整个非洲的接收国制造了经济和社会压力。这场移民潮主要由贫困、动荡和自然灾害等因素推动。但流离失所的最大原因还是世界许多地区共有的问题:无法找到离家近的工作。

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过去十年,许多非洲国家GDP增长抢眼。但新增的财富并没有转化为正式就业。事实上,撒哈拉以南非洲有70%的工人仍然在非正式部门中工作,如小农农场、街头摆摊、家政等,而无法获得授薪工作。

非洲年轻人是受这些失业和半失业趋势影响最严重的群体。但年轻人也是启动非洲举步维艰的就业市场引擎的钥匙。

到2030年,非洲将有超过1.2亿年轻人加入劳动力大军。要为他们创造足够多的稳定工作岗位,非洲需要改善教育,扩大金融服务普及,鼓励公民参与,提供社会安全网。但让年轻人得到充分的赋权追求创业才是影响力最大之所在。如果能获得正确的支持,非洲的年轻求职者们能够领导非洲就业增长稳步前进。

从许多方面看,非洲年轻人已经面临了挑战。这一代人比父辈受过更好的教育,他们的祖国受益于迅速而广泛的发展,包括日益普及的信息、金融产品和其他与商业相关的服务。非洲年轻人有改变祖国未来的崇高志向。

但企业家精神常常被视为最后的希望。非洲年轻人在市场中贩卖或生产商品,这不是因为他们想干这些事,而是因为他们没有其他选择。自由职业常常要与季节性、临时性或兼职性的工作结合起来才能过活。他们的目标是满足自己的需要,而不是开启自己的职业生涯。

但时代正在变化。如今,非洲年轻商业领袖正在崛起解决复杂的问题,并在此过程中让大量同胞有了工作。成功的故事数不胜数。在肯尼亚,蒙玉图·瓦伊吉(Munyutu Waigi)和伊万·姆博瓦(Ivan Mbowa)一起创立了Umati Capital,这是一家金融枢纽企业,帮助农业处理商、交易商和合作社获得扩展业务所需要的资金。因为此项成就,瓦伊吉和姆博瓦获得了2015年赞比西奖(Zambezi Prize,颁给促进金融包容性的创新方法)。

在加纳,马布尔·苏格洛(Mabel Suglo)与人共同创立了Eco-Shoes,这是一家帮助身患残疾的艺术家创作时尚舒适的鞋子和饰品的公司,他们的创作材料来自旧轮胎和再生布料。2015年,由南非非洲领导力奖学金(African Leadership Academy)和万事达卡基金会共同发起的安齐沙奖(Anzisha Prize)颁给了苏格洛,奖励她的创新商业策略。苏格洛为五名员工提供产品开发和金融知识指导,如今,她的企业正在茁壮成长。

而在南非,社会创新学院兼孵化器RLabs创始人马尔隆·帕克(Marlon Parker)创造了一种叫作Zlato的虚拟货币以鼓励人们参与技能培训。如果年轻人前来上课、使用笔记本电脑,或预定RLabs咖啡馆的房间,就能获得Zlato信用,可以用它消费食品、医疗和基本必需品。2008年创始以来,RLabs创造了数万个工作岗位,目前在24个国家开展活动。

非洲的年轻企业家们不但在寻找支持自身和为社区做出贡献的办法;他们也在解决引起移民问题在非洲出现——以及消失——的主要因素。比如,通过安齐沙奖获得支持的企业家,已经创造了300多个就业岗位,产生了850,000多美元的资本。Ashoka计划(另一个万事达卡基金会所支持的组织),更是创造了多达200,000个就业岗位。

年轻人通过这些企业创造就业岗位所依赖的技能,给了人们巨大的未来希望。这些才华横溢的聪明的非洲人所表现出的坚忍不拔正是克服现有阻碍、为家庭、社区和国家做出贡献所必须的。

这其实不足为奇。无论在什么地区,年轻人都是最接近他们这一代人所遇到的挑战的群体,并且他们常常也掌握着对对它们影响最大的解决方案。我们应该提供帮助。在更多的非洲年轻人准备进入劳动力大军之际,充足的就业创造需要不断地扩张企业家精神。毕竟,这些岗位能够让一代又一代非洲年轻人扎根于这个大洲。

http://prosyn.org/0Lz3oAf/zh;

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