Est-il possible de nourrir le monde entier ?

LONDRES – Dans les années soixante, la révolution verte a soutenu la production agricole mondiale en s’appuyant sur la mise au point de nouvelles variétés de cultures très productives, l’expansion des infrastructures d’irrigation et la distribution d’engrais et de pesticides modernes aux agriculteurs des pays en voie de développement. Pourtant les épisodes de famine endémique demeurent omniprésents, et ce, pour ces mêmes pays, ceux qui pâtissent le plus des mauvaises récoltes et de la volatilité des prix des denrées alimentaires.

D’ici 2050, la population mondiale devrait dépasser les neuf milliards. L’atteinte de la sécurité alimentaire signifierait un monde où tous auraient accès abordable aux éléments nutritifs dont ils ont besoin, malgré les contraintes en matière de terres arables et de ressources hydriques, les changements climatiques et la prévalence croissante des diètes occidentales qui accompagnent la hausse des revenus, mais qui soutirent des ressources considérables au pays.

Il ne sera pas aisé de surmonter ces problèmes. Par contre, en adoptant une démarche d’interventions concertée favorable à l’innovation, au renforcement des liens commerciaux et au soutien de petits exploitants agricoles et de femmes œuvrant en agriculture, les pays en développement seront en mesure de créer des secteurs agraires productifs, stables, résilients et équitables, et en même temps d’obtenir une croissance économique durable qui assure la sécurité alimentaire à tous.

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