China Mcdonalds in Nanjing Chien-min Chung/Getty Images




这就引出了软实力。软实力一词由哈佛大学的约瑟夫·奈(Joseph S. Nye)提出,用来评估一国——特别是美国——在其军事(或“硬”)实力之外的影响力。奈认为,一国的实力取决于其“改变其他国家行为的能力”,从而获得自己想要的东西,实现的方式可以是逼迫(大棒)、赎买(胡萝卜)或吸引(软实力)。“如果你能吸引其他人,”他指出,“你就能省下大棒和胡萝卜。”

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