恢复力之年

纽约—十年前的这个月,来自联合国168个成员国的代表齐聚日本兵库县首府神户,讨论在印度洋海啸灾难的背景下如何更好地管理风险。印度洋海啸夺走了227,000等多人的生命。会议进行了五天,其中也包括了1995年神户地震纪念日,与会者起草了兵库行动框架(Hyogo Framework for Action,HFA),该框架包括了多条旨在“降低生命损失和国家与地区社会、经济和资产损失”的措施。

两个月后,联合国成员国将在另一座可作为灾难风险代名词的日本城市——仙台参加第三次世界灾难风险遏制会议(World Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction)。仙台是日本东北地方中心城市,即导致福岛核电站事故的2011年地震和海啸的重灾区。所有与会者脑海中都会带着这样一个问题:世界实现HFA的宏大目标了吗?

过去十年的证据相当令人沮丧。这十年爆发了不少史上最严重灾难。太子港在一场地震中沦为废墟。卡特里娜飓风摧毁了新奥尔良。干旱在非洲之角夺走了无数人的生命。洪水和地震影响了巴基斯坦和中国的数百万人民。热浪和山火在全世界各国肆虐。

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