The Road to the Double Helix, the Structure of DNA
Fifty years ago, on April 25, 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick published a short letter in the science magazine Nature . It described a remarkable two-chain helical structure for DNA--the genetic material in living organisms. Their double-helix model provided the key to understanding how living cells can produce two exact copies of themselves and how genetic material stores all the information for synthesizing the proteins needed to build a living organism.
A second major advance came a few months later, when Max Perutz discovered a technique to determine the structures of large molecules like myoglobin and hemoglobin. Since then, X-ray structural analysis of protein molecules has helped us to understand the chemistry of biological reactions.
Both discoveries--DNA structure and protein structure--were made at Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory. So why were these two foundation stones of the revolution in biology and medicine that dominated science in the second half of the 20th century uncovered in a British physics lab?