精神病学的政治内涵

相对于其他疾病的治疗而言,在世界范围内,每年用于治疗双极紊乱、精神分裂和临床抑郁等破坏性精神疾病的科研投资是非常巨大的。可尽管精神疾病从本质上来讲是医学疾病,可以确切地找到作祟的问题分子,发现异于常人的解剖症状,但精神疾病与“身体”疾病仍然有着十分重要的区别。因为无论精神疾病有着多么完整的“医学”属性,它们也有着同样完整的社会属性,而精神疾病自身的性质是造成这种现象的原因。

心脏病、肺炎或糖尿病等疾病对患者的自我意识和社会地位会产生很大的影响,这一点是不容置疑的。但只有像精神分裂、双极紊乱、强迫性紊乱和抑郁症等疾病才会直接而彻底地改变病人的自我意识、身份和社会地位。

精神分裂症患者可能感觉自己是另一个人,也可能感觉自己被人彻底控制,怀疑身边的所有人,感觉自己备受威胁。进入狂躁阶段的双极紊乱患者除严重地丧失判断能力、甚至危及自身生命之外,还能够感受到一种异乎寻常的快乐,而这样的快乐是精神健全的人很少、或者根本感受不到的。强迫症患者的一方面对自己毫无理性的想法感到恐惧并引以为耻,另一方面又发现自己对这些想法和行为根本无力抗拒。临床抑郁症患者感到自己的整个生活一片漆黑、索然无味,全然丧失了正常人所感觉到的期望、愉悦和意义。

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